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Year Event   Comment
1870 Finnish missionaries arrive in Ovamboland, Namibia.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1953 The Norwegian National Union of Students includes South African Students in their exchange program (of three months).   Ref. Kroglund's list
1954 Publication of Herbert Tingsten's book Problemet Sydafrika (the following year published in Great Britain as The Problem of South Africa).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1955 Finland joins the United Nations.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1959 Launch of the Swedish Fund for the Victims of Racial Oppression in South Africa. (September).
Windhock 'Old Location' shootings, Namibia. (December).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1959 The scholarship system is extended to three years, and the Namibian student Hans Beukes, who is involved in illegal political activities, is the first to benefit from this.
The South Africa Committee is formed after initiative by the Norwegian Students Society, and with members from all political parties and other celebrities. A resolution condemning South African racial politics and calling for international assistance to the victims of apartheid is passed on, sponsored by representatives from all the political parties.
  Ref. Kroglund's list.
1960 Sharpeville massacre, South Africa. (March).
ANC and PAC banned. (April).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1960 First consumer boycott of South African goods declared by the Swedish Trade Union Confederation and the Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society. (April)
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1960 The trade union movement launches a Nordic consumers boycott in the period May-August, and the import of South African fruit is down by 95%. The Norwegian authorities state that this is a private action.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1960 Consumer Boycott campaign against South African products, initiated by the trade union movement and co-ordinated with other Nordic countries.
ANC deputy President Oliver Tambo speaks at Social Democratic 1 May.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1961 Armed uprisings by MPLA and UPA (FNLA) in Angola mark the beginnings of the Thirty Years' War in Southern Africa. (Feb - March).
Nobel Peace Prize to Albert Luthuli. Launch of Umkhonto we Sizwe in South Africa. (December).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1961 Swedish South Africa Committee established. (March).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1961 ANC President Albert Luthulu as Nobel Peace Price winner is warmly welcomed in Norway. That he is in house arrest and has major difficulties to come to Norway to receive the prize raises public awareness in Norway about the political situation in South Africa. During his stay in Oslo the Church, the trade union movement and the student organisations praises Luthuli with, amongst other things, holding a torch parade.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1961 Speech by President Urho Kekkonen at the UN, describing Finnish role in the world "rather as a doctor than a judge".
Students' International Assistance (YKA) established as a branch of World University Service (WUS).
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1962 Swedish Agency for International Assistance (NIB).
Address by Oliver Tambo to the Labour Day demonstrations in Gothenburg, Sweden. (May).
Afro Scandinavian Youth Congress in Oslo, Norway. (August).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1962 The Afro-Scandinavian Youth Congress is held in Oslo, which raises more attention to the liberation struggle in South Africa. Vice President of ANC, Oliver Tambo is one of the key speakers to the conference.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1962 Danish-African youth meeting in Århus.
Nordic Foreign Ministers agree not to back a UN General Assembly resolution on sanctions as long as the Security council will not make them mandatory.
Danish film 'Dilemma' built on Gordimer novel 'A World of Stranges'.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list. NAI Disk.Pap.
1963 Consumer boycott campaign against South Africa launched by the National Council of Swedish Youth. (March).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1963 17 major youth organisations form the Norwegian Action against Apartheid (Norsk aksjon mot apartheid - NAMA) and launches a new consumers boycott against South Africa. Later that year, The Crisis Fund for South Africa (Krisefondet for Sør-Afrika) is launched in Oslo, as a branch of the International Defence and Aid Fund (IDAF), with the main task to make funds available to IDAF. The Foreign Affairs Committee of the Norwegian Parliament takes initiative to establish The Special Committee on Refugees from Southern Africa, with the key role of channelling funds for education to young refugees from South Africa, and later also from Southern Africa. The fund disposed approximately 20 million NOK in the period 1963 - 1976.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1963 Committee of 100 and Finnish Students' United Nations Association founded.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1963 Consumer Boycott campaign against South African products, co-ordinated by the Nordic Youth Councils.
Foreign Minister Per Hækkerup launches Nordic initiative in the UN for a democratic South Africa.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1964 'Refugee million' adopted by the Swedish parliament. (May).
Consultative Committee on Education Support to African Refugee Youth later Consultative Committee on Humanitarian Assistance appointed. (August).
Eduardo and Janet Mondlane's first visit to Sweden. (September).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1964 FRELIMO launches armed struggle in Mozambique. (September).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1964 NAMA demonstrates against a Davis cup tie between South Africa and Norway in Oslo, which attracts attention in Norwegian as well as international press.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1964 First Danish official support to victims of apartheid, scholarships through IUEF.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1965 First Parliamentary motions on economic sanctions against South Africa. (January).
First Swedish grant to the Mozambique Institute, Tanzania. (May).
Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA). (July).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1965 lan Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Rhodesia. (November).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1965 FRELIMOs President Eduardo Mondlane on his first visit to Norway, asks for assistance. The answer from Norwegian authority is negative.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1965 South Africa Committee founded. YDIN -periodical founded.
First demonstrations against the Vietnam war.
First visit to Finland by SWAPO representatives. Emil Appolus and Andreas Shipanga.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1965 The regular 'Apartheid Appropriation' is established for Danish official humanitarian and educational support. An advisory committee to the Minister proposes allocations.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1966 First international conference on Namibia in Oxford, England. (March).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1966 ZANU begins military operations in Zimbabwe. (April).
SWAPO launches armed struggle for the liberation of Namibia. (August).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1966 NGO fundraising campaign fails.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1967 First FRELIMO representative based in Sweden.   Ref. Sellström's list.
1967 Second visit of Eduardo Mondlane to Norway, this time the visit attracted wide attention. NAMA has published a special issue on the Portugal colonies. The Crisis Fund and NAMA merges into one organisation; the Norwegian Council for Southern Africa, which is the main grassroot organisation, embracing at the most 40 member organisations from all over the political spectrum.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1967 First One Day's Work campaign was organised by Teen's Unions in Finland.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1968 Demonstrations in BAstad against a Davis Cup match between Sweden and Rhodesia. (May).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1968 Occupation of the Old Student House. Tricont was established. Extensive information campaigns.
Yhteisvastuu -fund raising campaing by Lutheran Church for Namibia.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1968 Support to Frelimo Institute in Dar, given discretely as development assistance through embassy in Tanzania.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1969 World Council of Churches launches its Programme to Combat Racism.
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1969 Endorsement by the Swedish parliament of official humanitarian support to African liberation movements. (May).
Swedish legislation against economic transactions with Rhodesia. (July).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1969 First official grant to FRELIMOs Mozambique Institute, which means that for the first time official funding is given directly to a liberation movement.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1969 Social Democratic Party in opposition adopts a programme that pledges support to national liberation movements in Vietnam and in Africa.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1970 First MPLA representative to the Nordic countries (Stockholm). (September).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1970 Africa Committee was founded, affiliating with World Peace Council.
Visit by Agostinho Neto, meeting with Foreign Minister Leskinen.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1970 Danish branch of World University Service (WUS) scholarship network establishes itself as an independent organisation to support liberation in Africa.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1971 First SWAPO representative to the Scandinavian countries, West Germany and Austria (Stockholm).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1971 International Court of justice rules that South Africa's occupation of Namibia is illegal. (June).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1971 First Swedish allocation to MPLA of Angola.Direct cooperation programme with FRELIMO of Mozambique.   Ref. Sellström's list.
1971 Parliamentary Report no.29 (1971-72) states that assistance to the liberation movements (restricted however to humanitarian relief) is one of the political pillars in Norwegian co-operation with the developing countries. SWAPOs President Sam Nujoma is on his first visit to Norway.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1971 Students and the African Liberation Movement Conference in Helsinki.
Six liberation movements frm Southern Africa attended together with student from 60 countries.
Visit of Amilcal Cabral to Finland and meeting with President Kekkonen. Financial support to PAIGC.
World Court terminates the South African mandate in Namibia.
OAU visit to Finland.
Intensive lobbying of Finnish political parties by students and other activists.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1971 Afrika-71' information and fundraising campaign for MPLA involving Operation Day's Work - also gets Apartheid Appropriation support for ambulance, the first official support to MPLA.
Kirkernes Raceprogram is established as Danish branch of World Council of Churches' 'Programme to Combat Racism'.
Campaigns the following years about conditions in South Africa, with frequent visits by exiled Namibian Bishop Colin Winter.
New Social Democratic Government announces support to national liberation movements.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1972 Foreign Minister Andersen travels to Africa and announces Danish support to liberation movements. This starts several years of debate if liberation movements are communist or nationalist.
Based on involvement and contacts made during 'Afrika-71' WUS-Dk gets funding for the construction of MPLA exile school in Congo, the first major 'Apartheid Appropriation' allocation to support a national liberation movement.
Support starts to Frelimo refugee camps through World Council of Churches.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1973 First Swedish allocation to ANC of South Africa. (Feb. 1973).
First Swedish allocation to ZAPU of Zimbabwe. (Feb. 1973).
UN/OAU Conference on Southern Africa in Oslo, Norway. (April).
ILO International Conference of Trade Unions against Apartheid in Geneva, Switzerland. (June).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1973 The UN/OAU conference is held in Oslo, with participation from the liberation movements. The conference focuses on the liberation movements and the need for support, and outside the conference the struggle for freedom receives broad coverage and sympathy in the mass media. NOCOSA holds a solidarity action together with other NGOs, with Africa weeks all over the country. This year 5 million NOK is granted to liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1973 Government of Finland began to support the liberation struggle in Africa.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1973 OAU meeting in Oslo with participation of national liberation movements; none of the Nordic governments are enthusiastic to host the venue.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1974 First ANC Chief Representative to the Scandinavian countries (Stockholm).
Military coup in Portugal. (April).
Independence of the Republic of Guinea Bissau. (September).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1974 For the first time assistance is also given to SWAPO and to ZANU and ZAPU.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1974 First support to SWAPO and first check to FRELIMO of Mozambic.
The collapse of Portuguese power over colonies.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1974 During a 13 month Liberal minority government, Foreign Minister Guldberg attempts to by-pass Danish and international NGOs on suspicion that liberation movements misuse Apartheid Appropriation funds for arms. Fails to convince a parliament majority, support continues.
Namibia Action Group demonstrates against furs from Namibia, and carries out information and fundraising campaign the following year.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1975 Independence of the People's Republic of Mozambique. (June).
Independence of the People's Republic of Angola. (November).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1975 Direct aid to the liberation movements increases to 15 million NOK, most of it to FRELIMO.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1975 Building up education and health projects for Namibia.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1976 Soweto uprising, South Africa. (June).
Patriotic Front between ZAPU and ZANU. (October).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1976 Diplomatic relations is established between Norway and Angola on 18 February. The Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO) launches a broad campaign against apartheid, and starts to support the South African trade unions economically.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1976 Martti Ahtisaari nominated at the Namibia Commissioner.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1976 Soweto uprising brings South Africa back on the agenda.
Social Democratic Foreign Minister Andersen visits Angola at first anniversary
First support to SWAPO, refugee camps in Zambia.
Kirkernes Raceprogram publishes documentation on Danish business involvement and labour conditions in South Africa.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes
1977 Steve Biko killed in detention in South Africa. (September)   Ref. Sellström's list.
1977 NOCOSA holds a hearing on South Africa, on the background of the Soweto uprising in 1976 and the increasing tension in South Africa. The Norwegian Parliament decides to give direct support to ANC and PAC.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1977 Finland bans export of military equipment to South Africa.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1977 Motion in parliament by socialist parties for official sanctions against South Africa fails.
Danish coal purchases from South Africa increase substantially this and coming years.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1978 Nordic Programme of Action against Apartheid/Oslo Plan. (March).
South African massacre of SWAPO refugees at Kassinga, Angola. (May).
UN Security Council adopts Resolution 435 on Namibia (September).
'Total strategy' adopted as official South African state policy. (September).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1978 NOCOSA launches a municipal boycott campaign, and by 1986 nearly 80% of all municipalities has approved anti-apartheid boycotts.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1978 NGOs hold major conference on South Africa, participation of liberation movements and Danish prime Minister. Re-launch of South Africa Committee.
Joint Nordic Action Programme on South Africa.
Danish NGOs start new campaigns against South African products.
Social Democratic/Liberal coalition government (1978-79). Ends discussions since 1972 on official 'Apartheid Appropriation' support.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1979 Sweden bans new investments in South Africa and Namibia. (July).Lancaster House Conference on Zimbabwe, London. (Sept Dec).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1979 The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) begins to support SWAPO and NUNW. Work starts in Kwanza Sul, Angola.
NGO-projects for supporting ANC of South Africa begin.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1979 South Africa Committee fundraising for ANC and exiled trade union SACTU.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1980 South African infiltration of IUEF revealed. (January).
Independence of the Republic of Zimbabwe. (April).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1980 The Namibia Association of Norway is established to provide humanitarian assistance to the Namibian people.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1980 Trade Unions start to support South African Trade Unions.
Independence of Zimbabwe encourages campaigns.
  Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1980 Social Democratic Foreign Minister Olesen rejects official unilateral sanctions as a fruitful means.
South Africa Committee hosts South African 'Amanda' performance tour in Denmark, which almost ruins it.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1982 Conservative/Liberal government.
South Africa Committee in Århus starts campaigning against the substantial coal purchases from South Africa.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1983 UDF of South Africa launched. (August).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1983 EELAK formed by several NGOs for intensifying the campaign for isolating South Africa.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1983 Social Democratic motion requests government to end coal purchases by 1990.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1984 Nkornati Accord between South Africa and Mozambique. (March).
Nobel Peace Prize to Desmond Tutu. (December).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1984 NOCOSA organises a new international hearing on South Africa's aggression against neighbouring countries, together with the Africa Groups of Sweden and the Danish Association for International Co-operation, with between two and three thousand participants. Bishop Desmond Tutu is rewarded the Nobel Peace Prize.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1985 Transport Workers Union boycotts trade with South Africa. All trade stops.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1985 Spectacular actions by South Africa Committees, including occupation of South African Consulate and a 'forced removal' of South African Airline office.
Trade union conference LO declares boycott of all South African products.
Ban against Danish investments in South Africa and Namibia, driven by parliament opposition.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1986 Swedish People's Parliament against Apartheid in Stockholm. (February). Olof Palme assassinated. (February).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1986 ANC opens an office in Oslo. NOCOSA joins the international Shell boycott campaign, which attracts great attention.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1986 Legislation imposes full trade sanctions against South Africa and Namibia.
South Africa Committee takes on to monitor sanctions as no official institutions does that, and starts campaigning against Shell due to its involvement in South Africa.
  Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1987 Swedish trade embargo on South Africa and Namibia. (July).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1987 Norwegian Parliament finally enacts boycott legislation after many years of pressure from the anti-apartheid movement, although with a lot of loopholes and dispensations from the law.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1988 New York accords between Angola, Cuba and South Africa lead to independence process in Namibia. (December).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1988 South Africa establishes a consulate in Oslo, which gives rise to a lot of debates and anti-apartheid activities in Oslo.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1988 SWAPO and ANC offices opened in Helsinki. Law prohibiting trade with South Africa in force.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1989 The process leading to independence of Namibia begins. SWAPO breach of ceasefire agreements 31.4.1989.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1990 ANC, PAC, SACP, UDI` and other organizations unharmed. Nelson Mandela released. (February).
Independence of the Republic of Namibia. (March).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
1990 The release of Nelson Mandela and the unbanning of ANC is celebrated.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1990 Namibia's independence, under UN supervision, led by Martti Ahtisaari.   Ref. Peltona's Finnish list.
1991 Denmark vetoes lifting of EEC sanctions before political prisoners are released, also in South African 'homelands'.   Ref. Christopher Morgenstiernes Danish list.
1992 Mandela's first official visit to Norway, on 17th of May, Norway's Constitution Day. Official support to the liberation movements in South Africa (1977-1992) was total 400 - 500.000 NOK.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1993 Nobel Peace Prize to Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willent de Klerk. (December).   Ref. Sellström's list.
1993 Norwegian Government lifts the sanctions on South Africa in March. The Nobel Peace Prize is rewarded to Nelson Mandela and Federik de Klerk.   Ref. Kroglund's list.
1994 Elections in South Africa. ANC Ied Government of National Unity. Nelson Mandela President. (April May).
  Ref. Sellström's list.
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